Hungary’s demographic revolution? Roma youth comprise a third of all students in eastern Hungarian counties

Attila Z. Papp, a researcher affiliated with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences’ Minority Studies Institute, presented research findings on significant demographic changes in Hungary that made headlines in the Hungarian media. The conservative Heti Válasz weekly magazine wrote about a “demographic revolution” and how there are now 298 schools in Hungary where Roma students form the majority of the pupil base. In Budapest’s 8th District, nearly every second student (43%) enrolled in elementary or high school is of Roma origin, while the proportion of Roma pupils in the adjacent 7th District stands at 23%. The right-wing Magyar Nemzet daily tried to nuance the story by speaking with another researcher of Roma-related issues, István Forgács, who pointed out that all of these statistics are estimates, as there are no exact figures relating to the ethic composition of Hungarian schools. Privacy laws dating back to 1993 prohibit Hungarian authorities from gathering such data. That having been said, he feels that Mr. Papp’s estimates are probably among the most accurate of those compiled in recent years. Mr. Forgács emphasizes that when exploring the relationship between poverty and a specific ethnic minority, the focus need not be on ethnicity, but on the question of the socio-economic milieu within which children are being raised. “It’s not the same if a child is raised in Pasarét and has a realistic chance of gaining admission to a foreign university, or if he/she is raised in Sajóköz, with welfare being their only prospect,” observed Mr. Forgács. (Pasarét is a leafy, relatively affluent neighbourhood in Buda, while Sajóköz is located in the economically disadvantaged northeastern Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county.)

Mr. Papp’s research, based on information obtained from school principals, administrators and teachers, suggests that 33% of students in Borsod county public schools are of Roma origin, while in neighbouring Nógrád country, this proportion stands at 34%. Mr. Papp adds that drop-out rates are highest in these regions–and the performance of students is by far the lowest–which should not come as a surprise, as this is usually the case in economically disadvantaged areas, regardless of ethnicity.

Proportion of students in Hungarian public schools, by county, who are of Roma origin. Source: MNO's map, based on data obtained from HVG.

Estimated proportion of Roma students in Hungarian public schools, by county.  Source: MNO’s map, based on data obtained from HVG.

Most researchers estimate that the Roma comprise approximately 9% to 10% of Hungary’s population, even though official statistics compiled by Hungarian authorities are always lower than this, and almost certainly underestimate the actual size of the country’s largest minority. My post-modern streak tells me that if people choose not to identify themselves as Roma for the census, then that is a choice that must be respected and—anyhow–ethnic identity is ultimately a construct. If you claim not to be Roma–even though your parents considered themselves to belong to this minority, and society thinks that you are one as well–then we must accept and respect your decision and view you as Hungarian only, or whatever other ethnic identity you choose for yourself. This is my default position when it comes to issues of ethnic, cultural and national  identity. But if people of Roma origin in Hungary are not reporting their heritage to census officials because they fear discrimination, then there is a problem. I suspect this to be the case, even though Hungarian society is traditionally quite assimilationist.

The 2011 census, for instance, puts Hungary’s Roma population at 316,000, or just 3.2% of the population. There is, even within the official statistics, a recognition of the rapid growth of the Roma minority, compared to the previous census in 2001.  The proportion of the Roma population is more than 150% higher than it was 10 years prior. According to the census, one third of  Hungary’s Roma population is under 18 years of age, which is double the national average. According to a study by researcher Géza Dúl, 36% of Hungarian Roma only have a Grade 8 education, while an additional 30% dropped out of school before reaching the age of 14.  The proportion of high school graduates stands at just 11%. (This proportion is even lower, according to the 2011 census.)

Ethnic minorities, according to Hungary's 2011 census. The Roma are listed under Cigány/Beás. Note as well that Germans comprise Hungary's second largest minority.

Ethnic minorities, according to Hungary’s 2011 census. The Roma are listed under Cigány/Romani/Beás. Note as well that Germans comprise Hungary’s second largest minority.

No Hungarian government has managed to markedly increase the social mobility and integration of the growing Roma population, but what makes the Fidesz government stand out as a negative example even in this regard, is its avowed lack of sensitivity to the needs of Hungary’s poorest and most marginalized populations, its cutbacks to social services and an educational policy that seems to discourage students of more modest socio-economic backgrounds from completing and continuing their studies. (Fidesz had an interest in reducing the compulsory school age to 16 and has also dramatically decreased university enrollment levels.) These policies don’t only negatively impact the Roma minority, but anyone in Hungary who is vulnerable, as a result of their sccio-economic situation. Since Fidesz came to power, poverty levels and inequalities have increased noticeably. More than 31% of the population lives in poverty. Additionally, nearly one out of every four Hungarian children live under the poverty line.  These levels of poverty, combined with high unemployment, have played a crucial role in the rise of the far-right Jobbik, especially in areas of northeastern Hungary that have significant Roma populations. These are Jobbik’s traditional power bases, but the party has by now expanded well into more affluent areas of western Hungary. This is perhaps best evidenced by the fact that according to’s calculations, Jobbik stands the best chance of winning a hotly contested by-election in the Tapolca  riding this coming Sunday. (This has been held by Fidesz since the nineties.)

With an estimated 20% to 25% of Hungarian children under the age of 5 being of Roma origin, the Hungarian government needs to take the issue of social mobility (or lack thereof) far more seriously and must re-think its overall approach to issues of public education and welfare. Undoubtedly, the lack of prominent role models and leaders within the Roma community also hinders social mobility. Hungary needs a Martin Luther King Jr. (and possibly even a Malcolm X, at least to shake people out of their slumber), but there is no one of this caliber and background on the horizon.


  1. Avatar Gyula Bognar, Jr. says:

    With the present demographics of Hungary, the Roma population growing fast and the Hungarian population growing old, the birthrate is far lower than replacement level, the emigration increasing, the future is predictable. The Roma population will reach approx. 20-22% of Hungary’s total population within less than 20 years.

    In most societies, the oppressed, excluded minorities rise and fight for equal rights and against racism, prejudice and human rights violations, when they reach the critical mass, which is about 1/5th of the population.

    I can be sure, it will happen in Hungary too, since there is no Civil Rights Movement and there is no work being done integrating the Roma into the society. However, about 80% of Hungarians hate or try to avoid the Roma people and extremely prejudiced against them.

  2. I know for a fact that there are generations of people with Roma ancestry that deny it. They simply do not want to go through the discrimination that is associated with it, especially now. My suspicion is the numbers are MUCH higher. My own family most deny it and have denied it my whole life, only practicing our ethnic culture in the privacies of our own home. Even the ones who have the strong physical traits will do anything in their power to hide it. My family has integrated quite well, but I find it sad that they cannot feel any pride in being Roma. I live in Canada, so I don’t fear the racism here and can feel pride in my heritage. In Hungary to do this would mean definite poverty and disadvantage.

  3. Avatar Christopher Adam says:

    This same process was also quite common with families of Jewish heritage. My father was Jewish by ancestry and he survived the Holocaust as a 12 year old boy in the Budapest ghetto, while his father was deported and died in Dachau. He never spoke to me about this Jewish ancestry (the fact that both of his parents were Jewish), and he, my aunt and my grandmother all considered themselves to be Protestant Hungarians from Transylvania, plain and simple. I only found out about this Jewish heritage and their experiences in World War II after my aunt died (my father had passed away much earlier), and I accidentally stumbled upon Holocaust compensation papers in her Montreal apartment.

    Whenever I tell Canadians about this story, they are fascinated and surprised. When I tell Hungarians, they generally just shrug and indicate that they have heard many such family narratives before.

  4. Thank you Chris for the great article.
    If you are looking for MLK, look into this:

    “Among the challenges Hungary’s Roma citizens face, we are particularly concerned about the following:
    • Forced removal of Roma families from their homes in Miskolc, Hungary
    • Government-supported segregation in Hungarian public schools
    • Government- sponsored labor programs that target Roma citizens and provide them with compensation below the minimum wage.
    • Far-right paramilitary groups and Hungarian police abuses against Roma communities. ”
    Aladar Horvath

    Aladar Horvath and the Roma Movement for the Republic organized this moving ceremony yesterday at the Bank of the Danube.

    The Roma Movement in Orkeny

    and Toalmas

  5. Pingback: Hungary's demographic revolution? Roma youth co...

  6. Avatar Charlie London says:

    “then we must accept and respect your decision and view you as Hungarian only”

    A Freudian slip?

    So many Hungarians stratify their population – as you appear to do, Richard – into Hungarians, Roma and Jews.

    But they will say “We are all Hungarians” and they require to be treated equally.

    This subconscious attitude, I believe, is a root cause of many of Hungary’s problems.

    An undercurrent of ‘pure’ Hungarians, or Roma, or Jews.

    Only Hungary.

    (Apart from Aryanism and the Nazi’s several decades ago)

  7. Avatar Charlie London says:

    Freudian slip? Me?

    I meant of course, Christopher.


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